Country Coordinator
Ratri Sutarto, Director
Denia Syam, National Coordinator

Climate Change in the Context of Indonesia

With the world’s second-longest national coastline, Indonesia is highly vulnerable to flood and salt-water intrusion of aquifers through storm surge and other weather events, likely to be exacerbated by climate change. With around 13,000 islands, big and small, sea-level rise projections of 35-40 cm relative to year 2000 have severe implications. Climate change threatens to directly impact the livelihoods of millions of Indonesians, potentially causing displacement and migration. Indirect impacts are likely to include inundation of areas currently supporting industry, agriculture and fisheries thereby affecting household employment.

The Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap (ICCSR) states that climate hazard will have an impact in key sectors including water access, marine fisheries, health, agriculture and forestry. In the water sector alone, climate change presents four main hazards: water resource scarcity, flood, landslide, and drought. The number of climate-related extreme events is increasing significantly, both qualitatively and quantitatively. From 2000-2010, hydrological disasters caused 4,936 casualties and impacted 17.7 million people. Based on the data from National Disaster Management Agency, related disasters contributed to 80% of all disaster experienced by Indonesia.

Urbanization in Indonesia

Indonesia has 98 cities, 28 of which have a population over 300,000  people. It is the fourth most populated country in the world with more than 240 million people, with 52% living in urban areas. Whereas overall population growth rate, 2010-2015, is estimated to be 1.0%, the urban population growth rate is 2.5%. The National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) estimates that 65% of Indonesians will live in urban areas by 2025.

Key Urban Climate Change Resilience (UCCR) Issues

As the world’s second-longest coastline country, Indonesia is highly vulnerable to the risk of loss due to coastal inundation and sea level rise. Around 42 million Indonesians reside in areas located less than 10 m above sea level (ICCSR, BAPPENAS, 2010). Urban slum areas are particularly vulnerable. In addition to the coastal-specific threats, they are prone to drought, landslide, flash flood and health related impacts (National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation/RAN API, BAPPENAS, 2014).

UCCR Coordination

Mercy Corps Indonesia has been the ACCCRN country coordinator in Indonesia since 2009. Initially, ACCCRN focused on two core cities (Semarang and Bandar Lampung) to increase capacity to implement climate change resilience processes and action. This was accomplished through establishment of multi-stakeholders city teams, a series of training and capacity building events co-developing climate change risk assessments (CRA) and city resilient strategies (CRS). The initiatives in these two cities have been followed up through implementation of several pilot projects based on priority issues identified under CRS.

In 2011, Mercy Corps Indonesia commenced replication of ACCCRN programming in further cities across Indonesia. In 2012, a Best Practice Transfer Program (BPTP) in collaboration with APEKSI was conducted along with CRA and CRS training in replication cities. This involved collaboration with the Center for Climate Change Risk and Opportunity Management – Bogor Agricultural Institute. Six replication cities have been engaged: Blitar, Cirebon, Palembang, Probolinggo, Pekalongan and Tarakan. Those replication cities now developing pilot projects prioritized through CRS development processes. A further ten cities are now seeking further involvement.

ICLEI Indonesia is also working with other Indonesian cities under the ACCCRN framework. National level coordination ensures each initiative effectively contributes to ACCCRN-related knowledge and learning.

Mercy Corps Indonesia is a member of the National Action Plan of Climate Change Adaptation (RAN API) secretariat and supports development of a RAN API downscaling strategy, which will be applied to cities. It also supports the Ministry of Environment in establishing the Vulnerability Index Data Information Online System (SIDIK), which is intended to provide technical support for cities developing climate vulnerability and risk assessments as a basis for city resilience strategies.

Related Initiatives

Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN) Program

Duration: 2009–2016        Funding: The Rockefeller Foundation        Cities: Semarang, Bandar Lampung, Blitar, Cirebon, Palembang, Pekalongan, Probolinggo and Tarakan.

The ACCCRN Program focuses on building resilience to climate change among vulnerable and poor communities in urban areas. Resilient communities are able to learn, cope, adapt, and transform in the face of shocks and stresses. ACCCRN is a nine-year initiative across cities in Thailand, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, and more recently Bangladesh and Philippines. Mercy Corps Indonesia works with national and local governments and partners to implement ACCCRN. Together, we develop tools, techniques and policy framework/strategies to adapt to climate change. ACCRN aims to bridge communication between the UCCCR practitioner network at the across city and national levels to support collaboration on UCCR practice in policy advocacy, research and implementation of action. One of the key objectives of ACCCRN is to share success stories and encourage cities around the world to replicate effective strategies and activities. Mercy Corps Indonesia collaborates with ICLEI-Indonesia also conducting ACCCRN initiatives other Indonesian cities.

Best Practices Transfer Program

Duration: Regular Program        Funding: APEKSI, Rockefeller Foundation (via Mercy Corps Indonesia)        Cities: Targets all cities in Indonesia

BPTP is a core program under APEKSI. The purpose of the BPTP is to encourage shared learning of best practices and lessons learned from municipal level programming across 12 cities throughout Indonesia. BPTP also provides technical assistance for pilot projects developed through a BPTP forum. Through this forum, several cities have indicated interest and requested technical assistance from Mercy Corps to engage in UCCR-building based on the ACCCRN methodology. Five cities currently active in a new round of ACCCRN replication are Blitar, Dumai, Cirebon, Probolinggo and Palembang.

Vulnerability Index Data Information System (SIDIK)

Duration: 2013 -2016        Funding: The Rockefeller Foundation, Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF)       Cities: National level, will be piloting in eight ACCCRN Indonesian cities

The Online VA tool is being developed as part of a National Partnership Strategy under ACCCRN to establish a national supporting platform for UCCR institutionalization in Indonesia. The Online VA is a system that will be used to calculate an area Vulnerability Index at provincial, district, city and village scales. This tool will complement a proposed Ministerial Regulation on Adaptation Mainstreaming under MoEF, to be launched in the first quarter of 2015.

Groundwater Conservation through Biopore Infiltration

Duration: 2012-2014

Funding: The Rockefeller Foundation, Bandar Lampung city Government

Cities: Bandar Lampung

This project aims to reduce flood and inundation potential, and increase quality and quantity of groundwater in Bandar Lampung, by implementing artificial groundwater recharge through biopore infiltration. The application of biopore infiltration is expected to be an easy, cheap and effective water recharge solution. The project intends to further reduce surface run-off and increase soil infiltration rates.

Flood Early Warning System

Duration: 2012-2014       Funding: The Rockefeller Foundation        Cities: Semarang

The goal of this project is to reduce flood-related vulnerability, injuries and casualties especially, along the Bringin River Basin in Semarang. This will be accomplished through development of a flood information system, early warning systems, evacuation strategies, and also the identification of temporary shelter for those most exposed to threat. The project will build climate-change resiliency and preparedness within local government and the greater community as they implement adaptive measures in preparation for future climate scenarios. The framework for this project may be used by the BPBD (Disaster Management Agency of Semarang City) and PSDA (Water Resources Management Agency) to support city systems.

Climate Adaptation & Disaster Resilience (API Perubahan) Phase 2

Duration: 2014-2015       Funding: USAID       Cities: -

The project works in five pilot sub-districts of two provinces and focuses on integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation as planning and funding priorities at the local, provincial and national levels of government, including municipal areas.

Further Initiatives and Links

Policy and Strategy in Urban Development

Duration: Regular Program       Funding: National budget (coordinated under National Development Planning Agency), G2G support       Cities: National level

The Policy and Strategy in Urban Development (KSPPN) program is the national policy framework and strategy under BAPPENAS strengthening provision of pathways for urban development policy under the National Long Term Development Plan (RPJPN) 2005-2025, Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2014-2019 and the National Spatial Plan (RTRW) 2005-2025. Additionally, KSPPN will act as a reference for synchronization and coordination platform for urban planning and development.